Reactions of Metals
All metals will react with substances differently, and even the same metal can be more or less reactive depending on what it is being reacted with.
The reactivity series can also be used to see the relative tendency for metal atoms to form cations - the higher up the series, the more likely it will form a positive ion. Something similar can be said for a metal's resistance to oxidation - the higher up the series, the more easier it is to oxidise.
REDOX (Reduction and Oxidation)
Most metals do not exist naturally on their own, but combined with other elements, and compounds, as ores in the Earth's crust. Most ores contain oxygen, and so when a metal reacts with oxygen a metal oxide is formed. This is called oxidation.
Removing the oxygen from the compound to extract the metal is called reduction. To extract iron we need to reduce the ore. This means we take away the oxygen.
Iron is naturally found as iron oxide, so we can reduce the ore by heating it with a reducing agent. By adding carbon monoxide, we can remove the oxygen from the ore to make iron and carbon dioxide:
iron oxide + carbon monoxide → iron + carbon dioxide
Fe₂O₃ + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO₂
The metals right at the bottom of the reactivity series are unreactive, and are found as uncombined elements in the Earth's crust.
Knowledge of the blast furnace (shown here) is not needed, and is only shown to illustrate how carbon is used to extract iron.
The least reactive metals are found in their native state in the Earth's crust. This means they are found as uncombined elements.
Any metal more reactive than hydrogen, but less reactive than carbon, can be extracted by adding carbon to displace the metal from its oxide (or other compounds). This is known as reduction.
The most reactive metals have to be extracted using electrolysis, as carbon is not reactive enough to displace the metals. This is rather costly, and uses a lot of electricity.
Aluminium oxide is insoluble in water, so it must be molten to act as an electrolyte. A lot of energy must be transferred to break aluminium's ionic bonds, which is expensive - so to reduce costs, powdered aluminium oxide is dissolved in molten cryolite. This melts at a lower temperature than aluminium oxide and helps reduce costs.
Displacement Reactions (Higher Only)
A more reactive metal can displace a less reactive metal from a compound in solution. This is one way to extract metals. For example:
magnesium + copper sulfate → copper + magnesium sulfate
Mg + CuSO₄ → Cu + MgSO₄
Ionic equations only show us the ions that change in a chemical reaction. This is useful as it shows what is oxidised and reduced. We can start by writing a balanced symbol equation for a reaction:
Mg(s) + CuSO₄(aq) → Cu(s) + MgSO₄(aq)
Then we can write out all the ions involved:
Cu²⁺(aq) + SO₄²⁻(aq) + Mg(s) → Cu(s) + Mg²⁺(aq) + SO₄²⁻(aq)
We can identify the ions that don't change, these are called the spectator ions. These are of no interest in the reaction, so we can ignore them and write out our ionic equation:
Mg(s) + Cu²⁺(aq) → Cu(s) + Mg²⁺(aq)
Once we have an ionic equation, we can take it one step further and look at half equations. These look at how the electrons behave. We can see there are only two different chemicals involved, and we can split our equation in half... to make half equations:
Cu²⁺ + 2e⁻ → Cu
Mg - 2e⁻ → Mg²⁺
By writing our equation in this way, we can immediately see that copper had to gain two electrons (reduced) in this reaction, and those electrons came from magnesium (oxidised).
Alternative Methods of Extraction (Higher Only)
The Earth’s resources of metal ores are limited. One of the metals we are worried about is copper, as its ores are becoming scarce. Luckily new ways of extracting copper from low-grade ores have been developed. These include phytomining, and bioleaching. These methods avoid a lot of energy costs compared to traditional mining methods of digging, moving and disposing of large amounts of rock.
Plants absorb mineral ions through their roots, and this method of extraction makes use of this:
plants are grown on a low-grade ore (contains less metal)
plants absorb metal ions through their roots
plants are harvested and burnt
ash left behind contains a higher concentration of the metal than the original ore
ash is then processed to obtain the metal
Phytoextraction is slow, but it reduced the need to obtain ore through traditional mining, and allows us to conserve the limited supplies of more valuable ores.
Bacteria can break down low-grade ores to produce an acidic solution (called a leachate) containing metal ions.
Bioleaching is used to extract copper. It doesn't need high temperatures, but it does produce toxic substances, including sulfuric acid, which damage the environment.
Recycled metals allow us to save on resources, but first require the metal to be collected. We can make new materials out of these recycled metals. The steps involved are:
collecting the used metal, and taking it to a recycling centre
sorting the metals and/or breaking them up
removing any of the impurities, or unwanted items
This is much less wasteful as we are no longer wasting valuable raw materials, and saves on huge energy demands to extract new metals. It also causes much less damage to the environment (as less quarries and mines are needed), reducing noisy and heavy traffic.
Life Cycle Assessments
Life cycle assessments (LCAs) are carried out to assess the environmental impact of products at each stage of its 'life'. This process is referred to as a 'cradle to grave' analysis. The stages assessed include:
extracting and processing raw materials
using up limited resources
manufacturing and packaging
using up land for factories
the use of machines and people
use and operation during its lifetime
using up limited resources
disposal at the end of its useful life
using up land for landfill sites
is the product recycled or reused
We often need to take transport of the raw materials, and the product, into account - as these can be transported huge distances back-and-forth from country to country, via ships or aeroplanes before they even end up at your home, school, or workplace.